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Historia de la malaria o el paludismo
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Historia de la malaria o el paludismo

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La malaria ha infectado a los humanos por más de 50,000 años, y puede que haya sido un patógeno humano durante la historia entera de nuestra especie. De cierto, especies cercanas a los parásitos humanos de la malaria se han encontrado en los chimpancé, pariente ancestral de los humanos. Se encuentran referencias de las peculiares fiebres periódicas de la malaria a lo largo de la historia, comenzando desde 2700 a. C. en China. El término malaria se origina del italiano de la edad media: mala aria — "mal aire"; y se le llamó también paludismo, del latín "palud" (pantano).

Estudios científicos sobre malaria hicieron su primer avance de importancia en 1880, cuando el médico militar francés Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran, trabajando en Argelia, observó parásitos dentro de los glóbulos rojos de personas con malaria.
Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran

Propuso por ello que la malaria era causada por un protozoario, la primera vez que se identificó a un protozoario como causante de una enfermedad. Por este y otros descubrimientos subsecuentes, se le concedió el Premio Nobel en Fisiología o Medicina en 1907. Al protozoario en cuestión se le llamó Plasmodium, por los científicos italianos Ettore Marchiafava y Angelo Celli. Un año después, Carlos Finlay, un médico cubano tratando pacientes con fiebre amarilla en la Habana, sugirió que también (Al igual que en la fiebre amarilla) en el paludismo eran los mosquitos quienes transmitían la enfermedad de un humano a otro.
Posteriormente, fue el británico Sir Ronald Ross, trabajando en la India, quien finalmente demuestra en 1898 que la malaria es de hecho transmitida por mosquitos. Lo probó al mostrar que ciertas especies del mosquito transmitían malaria a pájaros y aislando los parásitos de las glándulas salivales de mosquitos que se alimentaban de aves infectadas. Por su aporte investigativo, Ross recibió el premio Nobel de Medicina en 1902. Después de renunciar al Servicio Médico de la India, Ross trabajó en el recién fundado Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine y dirigió los esfuerzos de controlar la malaria en Egipto, Panamá, Grecia y Mauricio. Los hallazgos de Finlay y Ross fueron confirmados luego por un comité médico dirigido por Walter Reed en 1900, y sus recomendaciones implementadas por William C. Gorgas en medidas de salud adoptadas durante la construcción del Canal de Panamá. Este trabajo público le salvó la vida a miles de trabajadores y ayudó a desarrollar los métodos usados en campañas de salúd pública en contra de la malaria.

El primer tratamiento eficáz para la malaria fue la corteza del árbol Cinchona, el cual contiene el alcaloide quinina. Este árbol crece en las colinas de los Andes, en particular en Perú. El producto natural se usaba por habitantes del Perú para controlar la malaria, y los Jesuitas introdujeron esta práctica en Europa durante los años 1640 donde fue aceptada con rapidez. Sin embargo, no fue sino hasta 1820 que el ingrediente activo quinina se extrajo de la corteza y nombrada por los químicos francéses Pierre Joseph Pelletier y Jean Bienaime Caventou.
A comienzos del siglo XX, antes de los antibióticos, los pacientes con sífilis eran intencionalmente infectados con malaria para crear una fiebre, siguiendo las investigaciones de Julius Wagner-Jauregg. Al controlar la fiebre con quinina, los efectos tanto de la sífilis como la malaria podían ser minimizados. Algunos de los pacientes murieron por la malaria, aunque ello era preferido por encima de la casi segura muerte por sífilis.
A pesar de que el estadío sanguíneo y en el mosquito del ciclo de vida de la malaria se estableció en el siglo 19 y a comienzos del siglo 20, no fue sino hasta 1980 que se observó la forma latente hepática del parásito. El descubrimiento de esta forma latente del parásito, finalmente explicó por qué daba la impresión de que algunas personas se curaban de la enfermedad, para luego recaer años después de que el parásito había desaparecido de su circulación sanguínea.


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